This article provides an in-depth overview of key considerations and recommendations for utilizing and interpreting the Jump Scan within the Sparta Movement Health Platform.
Though the Sparta Movement Health Platform (SMHP) calculates and makes available many individual biometrics for vertical jump (> 40), high-level results displaying Load, Explode and Drive values, Jump Shift, Risk, and composite Sparta Score are highlighted after each Jump Scan for simple explanation and interpretation.
These metrics most concisely and intuitively characterize an individual’s dynamic movement strategy and can provide insight into movement health, function, performance, and risk. Higher values for Sparta Score reflect a more efficient dynamic movement strategy, with more detailed guidelines provided for the interpretation of these high-level metrics based on their absolute and/or normalized results.
Primary Metrics and Results
Jump Signature - dynamic movement strategy
Collectively, Load, Explode, and Drive represent an individual's ability to create, transfer, and apply force in dynamic movement, and are utilized to classify movement strategies. Normalized to our existing database, typical values for these metrics range between 40 and 60, with age-normalized, and raw calculated results also available.
Load - ability to generate force (eccentrically)
Measured during the down phase of the jump, Load reflects how quickly force is produced to start a movement. Mechanically defined as the average braking rate of force development, Load is a rate of force development, with raw values reported in N/s. The term Load is used to more concisely and intuitively describe this mechanical variable as it relates to the Load-ing portion of the jump. Higher values for Load reflect a higher rate of force development.
Explode - ability to transfer force
Measured during the upward phase of the jump, Explode reflects how efficiently force is transferred between phases of movement. Mechanically defined as average relative concentric force, Explode is a magnitude of force relative to mass (bodyweight), with raw values reported in N/kg. The term Explode is used to more concisely and intuitively describe this mechanical variable as it relates to Explode-ing up from the bottom position of the jump. Higher values for Explode reflect a higher relative magnitude of force transferred.
Drive - ability to apply force (concentrically)
Measured during the upward phase of the jump, Drive reflects how effectively force is applied to finish a movement. Mechanically defined as relative concentric impulse, Drive is essentially a “summation” (impulse) of total force over a period of time relative to mass (bodyweight), with raw values reported in Ns/kg. The term Drive is used to more concisely and intuitively describe this mechanical variable as it relates to Drive-ing into the ground to push off during the jump. Higher values for Drive reflect a higher relative impulse of force applied.
Sparta Score - dynamic movement efficiency
Derived from the most recent Jump Scan, Sparta Score represents an individual’s dynamic movement efficiency. Higher scores indicate better efficiency, with typical values ranging between 75-85.
The values for Load, Explode, and Drive which reflect different movement qualities or strategies are combined into a composite total Sparta Score, with higher scores representing better movement efficiency. This single convenient metric can serve to identify and rank individuals based on their overall movement efficiency. This metric was developed based on supporting literature suggesting large imbalances in normalized force-time metrics are associated with suboptimal performance and injury risk in athletic populations. The Sparta Score provides a convenient single metric to assess and monitor movement efficiency.
Jump Shift - magnitude of lateral shift during loading (eccentrically)
Jump Shift represents the lateral shift of movement during loading. Higher values indicate a larger lateral shift, with typical values ranging between 0-10.
Measured during the down phase of the jump, Shift reflects how far an individual’s center of pressure (CoP) shifts laterally toward a “preferred” side/limb to start a movement. Mechanically defined as CoPx eccentric displacement, Shift is a magnitude of center of pressure displacement, with raw values reported in m. The term Shift is used to more concisely and intuitively describe this mechanical variable as it relates to lateral Shift-ing that occurs during the jump. Higher values for Shift (in either direction) reflect a larger CoP shift.
Risk - relative injury risk (base athletic population model)
Derived from the most recent Jump Scan, Risk stratifies relative musculoskeletal injury risk utilizing our base athletic population model.
Derived utilizing machine learning, Risk is the output from a supervised learning model developed from the 10+ years of Jump Scan, MSK injury, and additional contextual data stored in our secure data lake. Risk is a categorical metric, with five unique values of relative risk on a gradient scale: Low, Below Average, Average, Above Average, and High
- Read more about Risk and how it is derived here.
- Read more about how Sparta Science utilizes machine learning here.
Primary Scan Utility
- Baseline Dynamic Movement Assessment or Screening
- Performance (e.g. Strength/Power) Testing
- Occupational Fitness Assessment or Screening
- Physical Therapy/Rehabilitation Testing and Protocols
- Performance/Risk Identification
- Gait Disorder Evaluation/Research
- Fatigue, Performance, and/or Readiness Monitoring
- Movement Disorder Evaluation/Research
- Movement Performance and Injury Risk Research
Interpreting Jump Scan Results
The Jump Scan provides an objective assessment to enable the evaluation, monitoring, and enhancement of dynamic physical performance capabilities. Additionally, impairment or dysfunction in dynamic movement capabilities is a potential cause for concern and motivation for targeted exercise interventions. Absolute and normalized metrics from the Jump Scan can provide insight into various movement qualities of interest to clinicians, practitioners, and individuals:
- Relative Strength
- Reactive or Explosive Strength
- Movement Patterns/Compensations (e.g. joint or limb preference)
- Movement Strategy & Classifications
- Relative Risk (athletic population)
- Movement Efficiency
- Vertical Jump Testing - Literature and Rationale
- Scan Protocols
- The Jump Scan
- What is being measured during the Jump Scan?
- Load, Explode, and Drive - The Jump Scan
- Movement Focus Classifications - The Jump Scan
- Normative Data in the Sparta Movement Health Platform
- Movement Panel Metrics (additional raw and normalized metrics)